Thursday, April 24, 2014


Our identity is UCU-MICAH a students’ led initiative at Uganda Christian University.
This questionnaire was drafted by the MICAH team in order to establish the health
facilities in place especially in our communities of operation that is Kyazanga TCLwengo

district and Nabukalu Sub-County- Bugiri District. Please answer all the
questions with honest. The information you will give is purely intended to help our
team and the local leaders in improving the health conditions in our communities
and it will be treated with a lot of confidentiality. We are requesting you to kindly
participate in this study by responding to the following questions.
Section A: Background Characteristics
Village …………………………………… Parish…………………………………
Sub-county……………………………….. District…………………………………


Copyright@2012, MICAH N.S


Copyright@2012, MICAH N.S
Water used at household Categories
water for members of your household?
1. Piped water
2. Open well/spring
3. Protected well/spring
4. Borehole
5. River/stream/pond/lake/Dam
6. Rain water
7. Bottled water
Toilet/Latrine coverage
13. What type of toilet/latrine facility do
members of your household usually
14. 9. Do you share this toilet/latrine
facility with other households?
1. Piped water
2. Open well/spring
3. Protected well/spring
4. Borehole
5. River/stream/pond/lake/Dam
6. Rain water
7. Bottled water
1. Mother
2. Father
3. Daughter
4. Son
5. Others specify ………..
1. Yes
2. No
3. Don’t know
1. Boil
2. Add bleach/chlorine/Tablets
3. Water filter/ Strain with cloth
4. Sunlight bottle
5. Other specify………………..
1. Flush toilet
2. Vip latrine
3. Covered pit with no slab
4. Covered pit with slab
5. Uncovered pit no slab
6. Uncovered pit with slab
7. Compositing toilet
8. Bush
9. Other specify…………..
1. Yes
2. No
Copyright@2012, MICAH N.S
15. If yes, how many other households do
you share with?
16. Do you wash your hands after using
the toilet/latrine?
17. If yes, what do you use to wash your
18. Do you wash your hands before you
19. If yes, do you use soap and water when
you wash your hands?
20. Do you use purified/clean water to
wash your hands?
Fuel used at the household
21. What type of fuel does your household
mainly use for cooking?
22. Where is the cooking usually done
23. Does your household possess a rubbish
pit or container?
……………… household(s
1. Yes
2. No
1. Yes
2. No
1. Yes
2. No; just water only.
1. Yes
2. No
3. Don’t know
1. Electricity
2. Natural gas/ Biogas
3. Kerosene/paraffin
4. Charcoal
5. Firewood
6. Dry banana leaves.
7. Animal dung
8. Other specify…………………..
1. In the main house
2. Kitchen
3. Open space
4. Other specify…………………
1. Yes
2. No
24. If no, how do you dispose off wastes? ………………………………
25. Does your H/h have a all the sanitary
facilities like dish drying rake, soak pit,
a bathroom and a separate shelter for
animals or birds?
26. If no, what is the practice like drying
utensils, disposing off water from
bathroom among other liquid wastes.
1. Yes
2. No
Copyright@2012, MICAH N.S
Disease And Illnesses Incidents
27. Do you have any children under age 5 in
your household?
28. Has any of your children had diarrhea in the
past 2 weeks?
1. Yes
2. No
1. Yes
2. No
29. If yes, what do you think was the cause? 1. Eating contaminated food
2. Drinking un boiled water
3. Others
30. How did you treat it? 1. Local herbs
31. Has anyone in your household suffered
from malaria?
32. If yes, what do you think is the cause of
33. Are there pre-exposing factors for malaria
34. If yes, what are some of those pre-exposing
35. If you have a fever how do you know it is
2. Took the child to the health
3. Healed naturally
4. Any other, specify………….
1. Yes
2. No
1. Mosquitoes
2. Witch Craft
3. Other specify……………
1. Yes
2. No
1. Bushes around homes
2. Open potholes
3. Presence of broken pots,
glasses, plastics that collect
4. Uncollected wastes
5. Others, specify………………
1. Pain in the joints
2. Headache
3. Loss of appetite
4. Any other specify
36. How do you treat Malaria? 1. Local herbs
37. Are there ways that can be employed to
prevent malaria?
2. I buy drugs from shops
3. Get treatment from a trained
4. Any other, specify……………
1. Yes
2. No
38. If yes, what are they? 1. Sleeping under mosquito treated
2. Spray house
3. Smoke the houses
4. Slashing the bushes around homes
5. Clearing all collected waters around
Copyright@2012, MICAH N.S
6. Any other……………………
39. Does your household have any mosquito
40. If yes, how many mosquito nets does your
household have?
41. Ask if you may view the nets. In what
conditions are they?
……………. In number
1. Good
2. Fair
3. Poor
42. Who the net? 1. Self
2. Government
3. NGO
4. Relative
5. Any other, specify ….………
43. Have you ever heard of an illness called
Tuberculosis or TB?
44. How does TB spread from one person to another? a. air – sneezing/coughing
b. sharing utensils
c. touching people with TB
d. food
e. sexual contact
f. mosquito bites
g. other
h. don’t know
45. Can TB be cured? 1. Yes
2. No
3. Don’t know
46. If a member of your family got TB, would you want
it to remain a secret or not?
47. Have you heard of HIV/AIDS? 1. Yes
2. No
48. Can people reduce their chances of getting the
AIDS virus by having just one uninfected sexual
partner who has no other sex partners?
49. Can people get HIV/AIDS virus from mosquito
50. Can people reduce their chances of getting the
AIDS virus by using a condom every time they
have sex?
51. Can people get AIDS by sharing food with a person
who has AIDS?
52. Can people reduce their chance of getting AIDS by
not having sexual intercourse at all?
1. Yes
2. No
3. Not sure/depends
1. Yes
2. No
3. Don’t know
1. Yes
2. No
3. Don’t know
1. Yes
2. No
3. Don’t know
1. Yes
2. No
3. Don’t know
1. Yes
2. No
Copyright@2012, MICAH N.S
3. Don’t know
53. Can people get AIDS because of witchcraft or
other supernatural means?
Don’t know
54. Is it possible for a health-looking person
to have AIDS
55. Can the virus that causes AIDS be
transmitted from a mother to her baby?
56. Are there any drugs that a doctor or nurse
can give to a women infected with AIDS
to reduce the risk of transmission to the
57. Have you heard about any drugs that
people infected with HIV/AIDS can get
from a doctor or nurse to help them live
Don’t know
1. During pregnancy?
2. During delivery?
3. By breastfeeding?
58. Do these drugs cure HIV/AIDS or treat? 1. Cure
2. Treat
59. Have you ever been tested for AIDS? 1. Yes
2. NO
60. From one menstrual period to the next, are there
certain days when a woman is more likely to
become pregnant if she has sexual relations?
61. Is this time just before, during, or right after her
period, or halfway between two periods?
62. Have you heard of any methods with which you
can use to avoid pregnancy?
1. Yes
2. No
3. Don’t know
1. Yes
2. No
3. Don’t know
1. Yes
2. No
3. Don’t know
Copyright@2012, MICAH N.S
1. Just before
2. During
3. Right after
4. Halfway between
1. YES
2. NO
63. If yes, which one? 1. Female sterilization
2. Male sterilization
3. Pill-birth control
4. IUD
5. Injection
6. Condom
7. Female condom
8. Withdrawal
9. Emergency contraception
10. Other…………………
64. Are these services provided with this area? 1. Yes
2. No
3. Don’t know
65. If yes, where? …………………………..
63. Have you or your child had any of the following
types of foods either today, or last night
Yes = 1, No = 2 and Don’t Know
= 3

other roots and tubers
1 2 3

1 2 3
1 2 3

spinnach, amaranths, bugga, sunsa, jjobyo, and

1 2 3
1 2 3

candies, pastries, cakes or biscuits
1 2 3

Thank you for your participation in this survey.
Copyright@2012, MICAH

Friday, March 28, 2014

On 1st February 2014, students from Uganda Christian University- Development Studies launched their campaign against poor waste management. The students demonstrated the need for a clean and healthy environment and that it is every ones’ right. The team participated in a-one-day garbage collection exercise at Kame market (Commonly known as Kikko Market) Mukono Town.
More than 100 students from all BDS classes participated. The objective of the cleaning exercise was intended at; reminding our people of their great responsibility to keeping a clean environment since they deal in food stuffs; but also to promote a spirit of service among our students. As a university, we wish to give back to our neighbors and this is one of the ways we can do that.
During the exercise, the local leadership of the market was represented by the chairperson himself, and his secretary. They supported students with materials such as; gloves, rakes and wheel-barrow, spades, sacks, and brooms. These supplemented what they students had carried. The venders in the market were grateful with the cleaning exercise. Most of them said that over time, rubbish accumulated in the market because the Municipality trucks are broken down and its only one tractor that picks the rubbish only once a week.
As a Department of Development Studies, such community outreach activities will be conducted on a monthly basis so that we remind and educate our people of the health hazards that come as a result of such uncollected and indiscriminative dumping of wastes. We will be moving to schools, Churches, vocational institutions and among others on matters on hygiene, sanitation, nutrition, HIV/AIDS, Malaria, Sexuality, Fitness, Drug abuse among other health challenges our societies meet in their day to day lives.

The writer is a Lecturer in the Department of Development Studies and;
A Patron to the Development studies students Association, Uganda Christian University



Question: Explain the evolvement of the theories of Gender and Development from the 1970s to 2000.

'Gender' refers to the socially constructed roles of and relations between men and women, while 'Sex' refers to biological characteristics which define humans as female or male. These biological characteristics are not mutually exclusive however, as there are individuals who possess both whereas development according to Mubonjuje (1977 & 1980) is an intense concentration of activities requiring high degree of synchronization and sequential/ordering over the period of time during which social, economic fabric of the societies are transformed and the spatial structures recognised to effect the better change for majority of the people.
In this essay, I expect to see evidence that you understand how WID first entered into the discourse of development and how the explanations (theories) about women and their disadvantages worldwide and the solutions to these advantages have changed over time. Who are the people doing the explaining, which global trends have influenced the development thinking in general and GAD in particular?
During the past few years, the term "women in development" has become common currency both inside and outside academic settings. But while "women in development" or "WID", is understood to mean the integration of women into global processes of economic, political and social growth and change, there often is confusion about the meaning of two more recent acronyms, "WAD" and "GAD".

The student begins by examining the meanings and assumptions embedded in "WID," "WAD" and "GAD" and then looks at the extent to which differing views of the relationship between gender and development have influenced research, policymaking and international agency thinking since the mid- 1960s up todate. It is suggested that each term has been associated with a varying set of assumptions and has led to the formulation of different strategies for the participation of women in development strategies.

The term "women in development" came into use in the early 1970s, after the publication of Ester Boserup's Women's Role in Economic Development (1970). Boserup was the first to systematically define on a global level the sexual division of administrative changes to ensure that women would be better integrated into economic systems (Jaquette 1982).
They placed primary emphasis on egalitarianism/social equaliity and on the development of strategies and action programs aimed at minimizing the disadvantages of women in the productive sector and ending discrimination against them.

The WID perspective was closely linked with the modernization paradigm which dominated mainstream thinking on international development during the 1960s and into the 1970s. In the 1950s and 160s, conventional wisdom decreed that "modernization," which was usually equated with industrialization, would improve the standards of living of the developing countries.

It was argued that through massive expansion of education systems, stocks of well-trained workers and managers would emerge; this in turn would enable the evolution of static, essentially agrarian societies into industrialized and modernized ones. With the growth of the economies of these countries, the benefits of modernization, i.e. better living conditions, wages, education, adequate health services, etc. would "trickle down" to all segments of the society.

Women rarely, if ever, were considered as a separate unit of analysis in the modernization literature of this period. It was assumed that the norm of the male experience was generalizable to females and that all would benefit equally as societies increasingly became modernized.
By the 1970s, this view of modernization was being questioned by many researchers. It was argued that the relative position of women had, in fact, improved very little over the past two decades.

There was even evidence which suggested that the position of some women had declined (Boserup, 1970; Tinker and Bramson, 1976; Boulding, 1976; Kelly and Elliot, 1982). For example, in general, women were less likely to benefit from the course of educational expansion (Muchena 1982). Enrolment figures, especially at the tertiary level, tended to be lower for females.

In the formal industrial sector, women often were relegated to the lowest-paying, most monotonous and sometimes health-impairing jobs, a condition due in part to their low levels of education, but also due to the role assigned to them as supplementary rattier than principal wage earners (Lim 1981)
Under the rubric of WID, the position of women in various sectors of the economy for the first time was studied separate from that of men. The recognition that women's experience of development and of societal change differed from that of men and it became justifiable for research to focus specifically on women's experiences and perceptions.

Nonetheless the WID approach was based on several assumptions which were at odds with critical trends in social sciences research in the 1970s.

First, statistics were beginning to show that women had fared less well from development efforts of the 1960s therefore a new strategy was called for. By the mid-170s, donor agencies were beginning to implement intervention programs to adjust the imbalance of development "pay-off." For the most part, the solutions adopted were within the realm of the "technological fix" with attention given to the transfer of technology, the provision of extension services and credit facilities or the development of so-called appropriate technologies which would lighten women's workloads (Stamp 1989 forthcoming).

Second, and related to the point above, the WID approach began from an acceptance of existing social structures. Rather than examine why women had fared less well from development strategies during the past decade, the WID approach focused only on how women could better be integrated into ongoing development initiatives.

This non-confrontational approach avoided questioning the sources and nature of women's subordination and oppression and focused instead on advocacy for more equal participation in education, employment and other spheres of society (Mbilinyi 1984a).

Moreover, because the WID approach was rooted in modernization theory, it did not recognize the contribution of more radical or critical perspectives such as dependency theory or marxist analyses.

The WID approach also tended to be ahistorical and overlooked the impact and influence of class, race and culture ( Mbilinyi 1984b; Nijeholt 1987).

It focused on women and gender as a unit of analysis without recognizing the important divisions that exist among women and the frequent exploitation that occurs in most societies of poor women by richer ones.

Third, the wiD approach tended to focus exclusively on the productive aspects of women's work, ignoring or minimizing the reproductive side of women's lives.

Thus, WID projects typically have been income-generating activities where women are taught a particular skill or craft and sometimes are organized into marketing cooperatives. Frequently a welfare outlook is added to projects and women are taught aspects of hygiene, literacy or child care at the same time (Huvinic 1986).

Project planners and implementers often are well-intentioned volunteers with little or no previous experience. It is rare for feasibility studies to be undertaken in advance to ensure that a viable for a skill or product that will be produced and it is equally rare for project planners to take serious note of the extent to which women already are overburdened with tasks and responsibilities.

The common assumption is that access to income will be a sufficiently powerful stimulant to encourage women somehow to juggle their time in such a way as to participate in yet another activity.

When women's income-generating projects do prove to be successful and become significant sources of revenue, they often are appropriated by men.

The WID/liberal feminist approach has offered little defense against this reality because it does not challenge the basic social relations of gender.

It is based on the assumption that gender relations will change of themselves aC women become full economic partners in development.

Development planners have tended to impose western biases and assumptions on the south and Africa in particular and the tasks performed by women in the household, including those of social reproduction, are assigned no economic value.
The labour invested in family maintenance, including childbearing and rearing, housework, care of the ill and elderly, etc. has been considered to belong to the "private" domain and outside the purview of development projects aimed at enhancing income generating activities.

Gender and Development
The gender and development approach has emerged in the 1980s as an alternative to the earlier WID focus. It finds its theoretical roots in socialist feminism and has bridged the gap left by the modernization theorists, linking the relations of production to the relations of reproduction and taking into account all aspects of women's lives (Jaquette 1982).

Socialist feminists have identified the social construction of production and reproduction as the basis of women's oppression and have focused attention on the social relations of gender, questioning the validity of roles which have been ascribed to both women and men in different societies.

Kate Young (1987 ) has identified some of the key aspects of the GAD approach. Perhaps most significantly, the GAD approach starts from a holistic perspective, looking at "the totality of social organization, economic and political life in order to understand the shaping of particular aspects of society" (Young 1987: 2).

GAD is not concerned with women per se but with the social construction of gender and the assignment of specific roles, responsibilities and expectations to women and to men.

In contrast to the emphasis on exclusively female solidarity which is highly prized by radical feminists, the GAD approach welcomes the potential contributions of men who share a concern for issues of equity and social justice (Ben and crown 1987).

The GAD approach dues not focus singularly on productive or reproductive aspects of women's (and men's) lives to the exclusion of the other.

It analyses the nature of women's contribution within the context of work done both inside and outside the household, including non-commodity production, and rejects the public/private dichotomy which commonly has been used as a mechanism to undervalue family and household maintenance work performed by women.

Both the socialist/feminist and GAD approaches give special attention to the oppression of women in the family and enter the so-called "private sphere" to analyse the assumptions upon which conjugal relationships are based.

GAD also puts greater emphasis on the participation of the state in promoting women's emancipation, seeing it as the duty of the state to provide some of the social services which women in many countries have provided on a private and individual ba5i5r
The OAL approach sees women as, agents of change rattier than as passive recipients of development and it stresses the heed for women to organize themselves for more effective political voice.

It recognizes the importance of both class solidarities and class distinctions but it argues that the ideology of patriarchy operates within and across classes to oppress women.

Consequently, socialist feminists and researchers working within the GAD perspective are exploring both the connections among and the contradictions of gender, class, race and development (Maguire 1984).

A key focus of research being done front a GAD perspective is on the strengthening of women's legal rights, including the reform of inheritance and land laws. Research also is examining the confusions created by the co-existance of customary and statutory legal systems in many countries and the tendency for these to have been manipulated by men to the disadvantage of women.

A GAD perspective leads not only to the design of intervention and affirmative action strategies which will ensure that women are better integrated into ongoing development efforts.

It leads, inevitably, to a fundamental reexamination of social structures and institutions and, ultimately, to the loss of power of entrenched elites, which inevitably will affect some women as well as men.

Not surprisingly, a fully articulated GAD perspective is less often found in the projects and activities of international development agencies although there are some examples of partial GAD approaches.

However, it should be emphasized that just as the WID/WAD/GAD approaches are not entirely conceptually distinct it often is not possible to place a development project squarely within a single theoretical framework.

It is clear that the general notion of focussing on women separate from men in at least some projects has been accepted by a considerable number of Third World governments, national and international development agencies, and in many non-governmental organizations.

However, to some extent this is a reflection of political expediency and should not be interpreted as a sign of fundamental commitment to the liberation of women.

As will be discussed below, while the rhetoric of "integrating women into development" has been accepted by many institutions, the actual process of ensuring equity for women even within those same institutions is still far from complete.

There is no question that the majority of the projects for women which have emerged during the past two decades find their roots in the WID perspective.

In a 1984 analysis of the publications of various international development agencies which were beginning to focus of women, Patricia Maguire (1984: 13).
noted that they tended to identify the following constraints as being detrimental to the status of women in Third world societies:
- traditions, attitudes and prejudices against women's participation;
- legal barriers;
- limited access to and use of formal education, resulting in high female illiteracy;
- time-consuming nature of women's "chores";
- lacy of access to land, credit, modern agricultural equipment, techniques and extension service;
- health burden of frequent pregnancies and malnourishment;

An examination of this list confirms the tendency of mainstream development agencies to identify problems within the context of existing socioeconomic structures, that is within the WID/WAD lives, and as such was, are improvement on earlier strategies, it did not challenge existing patterns of inequality.

It did not focus on issues of redistribution of land or wealth within societies nor did it question the sexual divisor of labour within households.

As such it can be seen as another example of modernization theory-driven development.
An analysis of the programs of many multilateral and bilateral development agencies reveals a similar pattern.

Various strategies for the integration of women into on-going programs, and affirmative action to ensure greater representation of women in agency staff positions can be identified. For example, the
Development Assistance committee of the OECD has emphasized the necessity for member countries to establish formal WID strategies, to put aside special funds for women-related activities, to fund research on WID, and to advocate the employment of women in multilateral organizations and in development banks (Rathgeber 1988).

Bilateral agencies like the swedi5h SIDA, the Danish DANIDA, the British ODA and the Canadian efbA all have adopted strategies to ensure that women in developing countries benefit directly from their programs and, to varying degrees, to try to ensure that female staff are represented in positions of power within their own organizations.

However, few strategies have been developed to question or attempt to influence in a profound fashion the social relations of gender in any given society.

There have been few in-depth analyses of the actual processes of integration of women and Wofien-related concerns into the programs of donor agencies.

However, a study of US AID's WID office by Kathleen Staudt revealed that these objectives had been pursued with varying degrees of interest and commitment.

Staudt's (1982) description of the establishment of the WID office in 1974 is instructive t She notes that while each AID policy paper must have a "women impact" statement, such statements are usually no more than a paragraph and are often recycled from one document to another.

In the early 1980s, the WID office staff consisted of only five professionals, all female, in an agency that had overwhelmingly male professional and female clerical staff. Sta udt notes that "Agency personnel frequently complain that WID

Is a 'womem.n1s lib' issue being used to expert American ideas, rather than an issue grounded in development and/or equity justification" (1982: 270).

The WID office had a weak power base because of its small staff allocation, a small budget which necessitated dependency on the budgets of other bureaus within the Agency, few allies in the technical areas and a limited mandate which enabled the office to raise concerns but not to veto projects.

Moreover, Staudt notes that despite efforts to increase the number of women benefitting from AID grants, in the early 1980s the number of AID-supported international trainees who were women was 13 percent, up 4 percent from 1974 but equal to what the number had been in the early 1960s.

Staudt demonstrates quite clearly that there may exist a considerable gap between the articulation of official policy on the part of agencies and the development of support within the agencies for the implementation of such policies.

Thus the existence of official WID policies cannot be judged as an accurate indicator of commitment to gender issues within an agency.

Agencies have taken different approaches with respect to the integration of gender issues into their programs (Rathgeber 1988).

Some, such as SIDA (the Swedish International Development Authority) began to finance projects aimed specifically at women as early as the 19605.

Others, such as the British ODA (overseas
Development Administration), steadfastly refused to give special support to projects for women until the second half of the 1980Ef claiming that to do so would be to impose the cultural biases of the North on the South.

Private foundations engaged in the support of research in developing countries, such as Ford, Rockefeller and Carnegie all have chosen not to establish separate women's offices or programs, arguing that to do so would bt to p?t rpetu;-att tht notion that ttworften'811 issues are somehow separate from those of men.

Despite the fact that they have not established WID offices however, each of the three foundations has supported many women-related projects within the context of existing program structures.

Ford Foundation, moreover, has required all institutions requesting support to provide evidence that women participate in their projects.

The World Bank has had an Advisor on Women in Development since the early 1970s, but in the mid-80s this office was expanded and given a higher profile within the Bank. A major fucu8 of the expanded office during the lath 1980s haLm been on "Safe motherhood" under the argument that: "Improving maternal health helps involve women more effectively in development" (Herz and Measham 1987).

The World Health Organitation similarly has made this a major focus. It can be argued that such initiatives, while of obvious and crucial importance, are based within a traditional view of women's roles. In 1987, AID carried out an evaluation of its experience with Women in Development between 1973-1985 (AID 1987).

The Agency identified three different kinds of projects:
i) integrated projects which require gender-sensitive designs to meet their objectives;

ii) women-only projects which usually are small in scope and labour-intensive for AID staff; and

iii) women's components in larger projects. It was found that those projects which had included a careful analysis of the sexual division of labour and responsibilities and were designed in such a way aC to realistically reflect the contexts within which men and women worked, ultimately were more efficient In meeting developmental goals.

The evaluation also revealed that income-generating projects for women rarely were successful in improving the economic positions of participants. Moreover, job training projects for women also usually failed because women lacked capital to establish small businesses where they could utilize their new skills.

Perhaps most disturbingly, however, the evaluation revealed that even In the period 1980-84, by which time the WID office had been established for several years, 40 perc=ent of the projects evaluated, made no mention at all of women.

In the earlier period, 1972-77, 64 percent of the projoctb analysed had trade no mention of women. The universe of projects analysed was only 98, therefore the numbers are too small for definitive conclusions, however they do reveal a trend which is in keeping with the attitudes reported by 5taudt (1982).

Towards the More Effective implementation of GAD
As already noted, it is difficult to find examples of development projects which have been designed from a GAD perspective.

one might speculate that such projects would be designed to empower women, to give them an equal voice by recognizing the full spectrum of their knowledge, experience and activities, including both productive and reproductive labour.

Projects designed from a GAD perspective would question traditional views of gender roles and responsibilities and point towards a more equitable definition of the very concept of "development" and of the contributions made by women and by men to the attainment of societal goals.

The Win Unit of the international Development Research Centre (IDRG) currently is supporting a number of research projects in Africa which are making a concerted attempt to view women as actors in development rather than as passive recipients of change. For example, projects in Kenya, Tanzania and Nigeria are looking at women's access to land within customary and statutory 22 law, and a5beb5ing the extent to which Wome.n'b productivity hab been negatively effected by legal systems which favour male ownership and indeed sometimes even fail to recognize femaleownership.

The research begins from the recognition that women are primary producers of food and that denial of land rights has had negative consequences not only for them personally but also for households which are dependent on their. A project in (3hana iC examining the impact of technological change on women farmers, analysing alternative methods of income generation which have been developed by female farmers after part of their land was appropriated for industrial purposes.

The researchers have discovered that as women are forced to spend longer periods of time searching for firewood, they have less time for agriculture. This in turn leads to lower crop yields with the outcome of less food for family consumption and less surplus for sale in local markets.

Second, women are beginning to cook less, serving their families cheap store-bought foods or serving food cooked several hours earlier and which may have already become tainted.

From WID to GAD: Conceptual Shifts in the Women and Development Discourse
This paper provides an introduction to the issue of women and development by tracing the main trends in the way women’s issues have been conceptualized in the development context. The first part of the paper explains the emergence of women in development (WID), highlighting a dominant strand of thinking within WID that seeks to make women’s issues relevant to development by showing the positive synergies between investing in women and reaping benefits in terms of economic growth. In the second part the author looks at the analytical and intellectual underpinnings of the shift from WID to GAD (gender and development) and highlights two main tensions that emerge from the different conceptualizations of gender.
© 1995 United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD

The Reader- For social Research Method by Shadrack Natamba

Table Of Contents

1:0 Introduction
1.1. What Research is
1.2 Social research a science:
1.3 Characteristics of scientific social research
1.4 Stages taken in scientific social research:
1.5 The goals of scientific social research:
1.6 Basic concepts in research:
1.7 Possible outcomes of hypotheses
1.8 The characteristics of a usable hypothesis

2.0 Data Collection Methods
2.1 Introduction
2.2. Non-survey research

Focus group discussions
Key Informant Interviews
i. Non-participant observation
ii. Observation with some participation
iii. Participant observation

A Case Study
2.3 Quantitative research (survey research)
2.31 Personal interviews:
Formal Interviews
Informal Interviews
What to consider for a successful interview
What is expected of the interviewer:
Locating sample members.
Obtaining the interview:
The interviews:
Writing down (recording) responses:

Advantages of interview as a method of data collection
Problems met in using interview as a method of data collection
Response errors
How to reduce response errors
Self administered questionnaires:
Mail Questionnaire

Advantages of using mail Questionnaire:
Its Limitations

3.0 Sampling
3.1Some Concepts:
Stages taken in sampling
Why sampling is necessary
Sampling error
Non-sampling error
Sampling techniques

3.2 Random sampling techniques
• Simple Random Sampling
• Systematic Sampling
• Stratified Sampling
• Cluster sampling
Area Sampling

3.3 Non-random/probability sampling
• Convenience Sampling
• Purposive sampling
• Network sampling
• Quota Sampling
• Dimensional sampling

4.0 Questionnaire design
Set of Principles for Proper questionnaire Design:
The design of non-survey research instructions:

5.0 Data Processing
o Editing
o Coding
o Tabulation And Analysis Of Data

6 Measurement
Levels Of Measurement
• Nominal Measurement
• Ordinal Measurement
• Interval Measurement
• Ratio Measurement

7 Evaluation Of Research
8. The Use Of Secondary Data

9. Dissertation Writing

• Formulation Of A Research Problem
• Formulation of a Research Design (overall approach to data collections)
• Method of data Collection (Personal Interviews, mail questionnaire)
• Formulation/Design of Research Instruments
• Deciding on the sample size
• Data Collection
• Analysis and Interpretation of Data Collected
• Preparation and presentation of Research Report

1:0 Introduction

1.2. What Research is:

It is taking another step forward is searching for the unknown. Someone else has searched and explained some phenomenon, and you are adding on what is already known.

Since time immemorial, Scientists have been searching for different kinds of medicine for different types of illness; for a better drug, more search has to be carried out.

Since society is dynamic, a consistent and persistent search for explanations as to why phenomena happen the way they do is not only necessary but a must.

Research therefore, is a consistent and organised process of collecting and analysing information for a specifically defined purpose.

For an academic(ian), a community and a business entrepreneur; the purposes could be to know more, to solve a problem and to plan ahead; respectively.

A good research is systematic, well planned, organised and has specific goals. It involves observing, theorising, experimenting to test a theory or set of theories, drawing conclusions and reporting results (Kakooza:2000).

1.2 Social Research A Science

Social Research is a science since it involves gathering evidence and applying reason. It finds out why, when, who and what; about things in a systematic way. It uses theory and facts to understand our environment.

1.3 Characteristics Of Scientific Social Research

i) Its results are based on observations that can be verified and are on reason. The results are not based on speculation. Scientific Social Research is therefore empirical.
ii) It makes an attempt to analyse and explain observations in abstract terms in order to understand causal relations existing between them; that is Scientific Social Research is theoretical.
iii) What is discovered is added on earlier discoveries and knowledge. Data keeps adding to the pool of information. It is therefore cumulative.
iv) Research comes up with conclusions that are independent of personal biases of the researcher, and therefore scientific social research is objective.

1.4 Stages Taken In Scientific Social Research

i) Identifying the problem: The researcher begins by identifying the prevailing problem. Taking an example of the prevailing poverty in Uganda, or abuse of young girls. One must first identify that there is a problem in order to do research.

ii) Review of related literature: This is a necessary and important step. After the problem has been identified, the researcher must review the literature that is related to the subject under study. This helps the researcher to know what has already been studied and identify the gaps in which he/she can do the research without duplication of findings.

iii) Research Design formulation: After identifying the prevailing problem, the methods of approach are then designed. This is determined by a multiple of factors of which there is the population structure, the population number, agency of the need for results, availability of funds etc. These could either be qualitative or quantitative design.

A qualitative design: This design promotes greater understanding of not just the way things are, but also why they are the way they are. Through intensive and extensive observation, interviews and discussions, the qualitative researcher seeks to derive and describe findings that promote greater understanding of how and why people behave the way they do. It explains and gains insight and understanding of phenomena through intensive collection of narrative data (Martin E. Amin, 2005).

In this approach, data collected is subjective and the main measurement tool for collecting data is the investigator him/herself (Martin E. Amin, 2005), therefore a need for an intensive training and practice in the methods to be used if one is to conduct an effective research. Its data is basically descriptive in nature.

A quantitative design: On the other hand however, this design deals with numbers. Quantitative research involves the collection of numerical data in order to explain, predict and control phenomena of interest, data analysis being more statistical (Martin E. Amin, 2005). It involves collecting data in order to test hypotheses or answer questions concerning the current status of the subject of the study.

iv) Data Collection: This is always determined by the design and therefore the factors that determine the design. The methods of data collection include: -- Personal interviews
- Mail Questionnaires
- Observations etc.

v) Processing of the Data: This involves checking and removing all mistakes (editing), categorising (coding) and analysing the data. Editing should be done within the same day of collection.

vi) Interpreting the results and writing the report. After the data has been analysed, it is interpreted and a report is made. This is the final stage. In case the researcher is sent by some agency, this is what he/she is expected to hand in.

The Goals/purpose Of Scientific Social Research; It must specifically be noted that society is dynamic; Leaders, Policy makers and other concerned persons cannot rely on previous knowledge but must keep doing research. As an example, low Life Expectancy in Uganda for years was a result of deaths due to malaria fever; but currently, deaths due to HIV/AIDS could have overtaken deaths due to malaria fever and therefore a need to find to find out whether HIV/AIDS is the number one current killer disease.

- The general goals therefore are:-

i) to measure and describe a particular phenomena
ii) to predict phenomena
iii) to control the magnitude or occurrence of phenomena on the basis of the knowledge of the conditions under which the situation occurs.

Scientific Social Research follows two criteria in measuring and describing phenomena.
(i) All aspects, areas or issues that require the attention of the researcher is identified and a place for them is found on the research agenda i.e Exhaustiveness. If for example; of the five courses offered at Uganda Christian University (2001),
(LLB, BBA, BSWSA, M-COM and EDUC),if a questionnaire is designed which does not consider M.Com, then the research is not exhaustive. Even if all courses are identified but particular aspects that make up the course are left ie some subjects that make up the course, then still the investigation is not exhaustive.

(ii) Each particular element of interest must not be ambiguously place in more than one location ie one cannot be both guilty and innocent, Black and coloured etc.

When events are measured, the instruments used must be both valid and reliable. Valid in that the instrument used must be with the capacity of measuring what it intends to measure i.e Thermometer for temperature levels. The instrument must also be reliable by showing consistence in giving the same information always ie the same weight in kilograms for the same object whichever number of times its measured. In this case of reliability, let us take an illustration for clarity; suppose a non-resident student comes late to a lecture and the lecturer ask the student that, “where do you come from?” The student may interprete the question either to mean where he resides or the home area. To avoid this ambiguity, one may ask, “where do you reside?”

i) A variable: This is a measurable event with the capacity to change ie level of income, age, level of education etc.
ii) A constant: A measurable event, which does not change. eg sex like male of female.

iii) A proposition: This is a statement of relationship between variables. One which discusses a single variable is univariate, two a bivariate and a multivariate for three or more variables. The example of each respectively could be; He is a drug addict, He is a drug addict and he stay in a slum, He is poor, stays in a slum a drug addict.

iv) A Hypothesis: This is a tentative statement formulated for purposes of empirical testing. In a hypothesis, there are always two variables, the cause and the outcome (effect). The cause is always independent of other factors, therefore an independent variable but the outcome is always dependent on the cause, therefore a dependent variable. If we take an example of level of Income and standards of living, one can confidently say that the level of income directly affects the standards of living of an individual.

The dependent variable can also be called the predicted variable while the cause, the predictor variable.


The essence of formulating a hypothesis is to verify or reject the ideas in the mind of the researcher. A hypothesis can therefore be either rejected or approved. Hypotheses are always derived from:

i) the thoughts a researcher has as a result of observation or experiences
ii) the already formulated theories
iii) the already available data etc


i) It must be conceptually clear
ii) It must be measurable
iii) The operations and predictions indicated by the hypothesis must be spelt out clearly
iv) It must be related to the available methods of research
v) Must be related to a body of theories.




There are basically two forms of data collection methods; these are Non-Survey Research and Survey Research.


These are several methods within this form of research of which are:-

(i) Focus group discussions
(ii) Key Informant Interviews
(iii) Observations


This is a type of Qualitative Research in which the researcher brings together small groups of people, 6–12 in number, with similar characteristics ie Homogeneous, to discuss a particular topic of research. The Researcher plays the role of a modulator, and with an open instrument, the researcher engages the group in a discussion about the subject under investigation. The group is homogeneous in terms of the relevant variables for the study. If the study is on “Child Abuse”, the groups could be of 18-28 years, 29-40 years, 41-60 years etc.

It essentially relies on convenient sampling in which the researcher brings together groups of people that are easily accessible and have the information. Purposive sampling can also be used by deliberately choosing the people to get information from.

These Focus Groups Discussions are basically used for:
a) securing background information
b) getting feed back from project beneficiaries
c) Interpreting available quantitative data
d) Project monitoring and evaluation
e) Assessing responses to recommend for innovations, policies etc

Advantages of using Focus Group Discussions:-
a) It enables rapid generation of information
b) It reduces individual inhibitions and hindrances
c) It helps respondents to raise issues and concerns that the investigation may not have considered ie they come up with fresh ideas and open fresh issues
d) They allow an interaction between the respondents and the investigator, creating a more in depth understanding of peoples’ understanding and lives.
e) It flexibility allows the researcher to use the responses to frame relevant and necessary questions.
Disadvantages of using Focus Group Discussions:-
f) Empirical generalisations cannot be from the data
g) Liable to interviewer biases since these are no structural questions
h) May lead to fear of giving personal sensitive information
i) Despite the presence of the moderator, there are people who always dominate and those who cannot express themselves in-group discussions.

Note: The role of moderator:
- to control those who may dominate the discussion
- to encourage those who may not feel free to talk
- to probe in case need arises


These are informal interviews directed to the knowledgeable people about the problem. These respondents may not necessarily be under the problem, but only with a sufficient knowledge ie

i) A District Local Council Chairman, in case of the prevailing poverty in an area.
ii) A Police Office, about the rates of committing a particular offence in an area.
iii) District Medical Office, about the progress in fighting HIV/AIDS.

These informants should be selected carefully to reflect diverse views and concerns. They should be selected from different social-economic groups and the ideal method should be according to the nature of the study. An interview guide with issues to be covered is used and it is carried out in an informal atmosphere. Probes to elicit more information are made, and detailed noted by the interviewer are made. If possible a tape-recorder should be used. This kind of data supplements other forms of data.

It is most appropriate when:

A general descriptive information is sufficient for decision making ie-assessing performance of NGOs.

i) It is necessary to know why a particular group of people behave the way they do i.e. why child abuse is on the increase?

ii) More light/interpretation is needed on the available quantitative data.

iii) The primary purpose of the study is to generate suggestions and recommendations.

iv) There is a need for proper questionnaire design, hypothesis and propositions for further testing and refinement.

I) Advantages of using Key Informant Interviews:
i) Since it is from knowledgeable persons, it reveals in-depth, inside information, to the extent of providing confidential information, which may not be the case in a formal setting.
ii) It is cheap to conduct this kind of interview
iii) It reveals new ideas, relevant to the study, which may not have been anticipated, in the planning process.
iv) Easy to locate potential respondents willing to give the information.

II) Disadvantages of using Key Informant Interviews:
The information cannot be generalised and therefore less reliable (ie incase it is biased).


This studies in details, relatively few persons who volunteer to give all the required information. It could even be one person, hence the term “Case Study”. Such an individual could give in detail the culture of a particular group ie Ankole, explaining why, how and when it began to be what it is.


Observation is “ a purposive or intentional examination of something, particularly for purposes of data gathering”. (Chaplain 1968). It is a care full watching and noting phenomena as they occur in their natural setting. In case of any suspension from the observed, they may change behaviour temporarily. This calls for high skills and patience in order for them to go back to the normal way of life.

There are basically three forms of observation:

• Non-participant observation
• Observation with some participation
• Participant observation

I) Non-Participant observation: In this form of observation, there is careful watching and noting of events as they occur in their natural setting, without the Researcher’s participation. This form of observation has some problems:

a) It is easy to identify the researcher since he is a stranger to the observed.

b) Some salient aspects may not be observed by the researcher.

II Observation with some participation: This is where in addition to observation; the researcher takes part in some activities. The problems involved include:-

a) The researcher may not observe some other aspects in which he does not take part.
b) The researcher may also fail to get real meaning of the practices leading to misinterpreting the information due to his own perceptions.

II) Participant Observation: In addition to observing the subjects, the researcher shares in the life and activities of those under investigation. This requires living in the community for a considerable period of time. This help to eliminate suspension and the subjects won’t continuously change behaviour. It also gives adequate time to study the events and practices under investigation and helps the observer to can understand and properly interpret the practices.

This form of observation has some problems of which there is:-

a) Possibility of failing to play a dual role of a participant and an observer, one of the two may be compromised.
b) Once the observer is identified, he may fail to observe each and every aspect of the practice.


(i) Able to see and observe what exactly takes place in its natural form without any distortion.

(ii) Data collected is up to date and there is no memory failure.


1. In case of any suspension, the subjects have the potential to change their behaviour and act otherwise.

2. There us time constraint, in that some activities take place once for a period of time, so the researcher has to wait until that activity is performed.

3. Some events are exclusive to none members and in such cases it is impossible to do observation.
4. In case of observer bias, the observer may select on the activities that are more interesting, and the results may not be complete.
5. Without enough skills, the results may not be exhaustive and may not describe in totality the events in the field.

6. There may be unfair and poor representativeness of things to observe. The observer may fail to select a representative sample of aspects to observe and results cannot be generalised to the whole population.


Unlike the non-survey types of research, these are based on numbers, and the conclusions are based on the frequencies of each category. These include:


In this method, data is collected from the respondent by asking questions in a face to face, one to one situation. The interviewer directs questions to the interviewee (respondent) from an interview guide, which is well structured, and the respondents are filled in by the interviewer. It is always “one to one” since most people become more free to give personal information, especially in case of sensitive issues in the absence of others. This requirement is in exception of special cases like when an interpreter is needed.

There are two forms of interviews:

I) Formal Interviews: This is where a set of well framed questions are asked by the interviewer to respondent and the responses are recorded in a standard form. Standard, well-structured questions in the same form, order and manner are directed to all the respondents. It is the Interview schedule that is used.
II) Informal Interviews: The interview guide is not structured such that the interviewer can even change the order and wording and explain the meaning. Depending on how questions are answered, supplementary questions can be given. Probing therefore is allowed, especially when the responses given are not sufficient. This is common when the interviewer is the researcher.


1) Accessibility - The researcher must seek for information from those who have it. If the subject of study was “Effects of HIV/AIDS on households”, for sufficient information, one needs to interview those households which have had a victim of HIV/AIDS. However, withholding the information, memory failure and misunderstanding of the questions may lead to inaccessibility.

2) Cognition – It is a requirement that the respondent knows the role he is called on to do. There is therefore a need for an understanding on the part of the interviewee/respondent on what is required of him ie to give the required information. In some cases, especially where the respondent may want to lead the conversation which may distort the need and the purpose of the research. It is necessary therefore that the respondent’s role and purpose of the study be well explained to the respondent.

3) Motivation – There is a need to convince the respondent to :
i) accept to co-operate
ii) give accurate information
iii) start and finish the interview
The respondent should never be embarrassed. Assure the respondents that all responses are correct and that there is total confidentiality. Symbols/numbers may be substituted for names to ensure no suspension.


1) LOCATING SAMPLE MEMBERS: This is after the researcher has identified the method of sampling and is in the field trying to formulate a sampling frame. The sampling method used determines how easy the task of locating the sample members will be. If for example simple Random Sampling was used as compared to cluster sampling where elements will be concentrated in some particular portions of the whole area.

When locating a Sample, the researcher meets problems some of which are:

i) Unfavourable weather conditions
ii) Hostile attitudes towards strangers
iii) Failure to locate some addresses
iv) Mobility of some potential respondents
v) Unfavourable terraine
vi) Failure to find potential respondents at their places, therefore a need for call-backs.


To win the motivation of the potential respondent, the interviewer begins by introducing himself and the organisation he/she represents to the respondent. The Interviewer then precisely explains the purpose of the study. The explanation should include the expected outcomes and how the results will be of benefit. The researcher should not tell lies about the outcomes of the research. It should be well explained how the potential respondent was selected and that the responses are both confidential and anonymous, which cannot be used against the respondent. It should be made clear to the respondent that the interview is not testing knowledge and no superior behaviours should be displayed by the interviewer. A friendly relationship called rapport is thereby created.

This is the asking of questions and waiting for the responses. The types of questions expected include; factual questions, opinion questions and knowledge questions. The questions like: Have you ever been abused?, what opinion do you have on child abuse? Do you know any effect of child abuse? For factual opinion and knowledge questions respectively. Of these, it is the opinion questions which are always neither easy to ask not to answer and the interviewer must avoid showing his side. The types of responses expected include: Adequate responses, inadequate responses and non-responses. Of these responses, it is the inadequate type of responses where keen interest should be put. An inadequate response could be:-

i) Partial i.e. incomplete
ii) Inaccurate i.e. with distortions
iii) Irrelevant ie that which does not answer the given question
iv) Verbalised response ie the respondent cannot answer all the questions asked.

As the interview goes on, the responses are recorded. This requires careful listening, and observing any movements/reactions and at times a need for probing. Verbal and non-verbal responses should be taken care of in order to do proper analysis. Incase of rude, harsh and embarrassing responses, the interviewer should accommodate it to sustain the interview.


1. It can be supplemental by observation
2. Can Work for both the literate and the illiterate
3. People naturally prefer talking to writing
4. The interview maintains the order of questions
5. Probing is possible, and therefore some flexibility
6. It is the sampled person who give the responses
7. The completion rate is high.
8. In case of any need for clarifications, the researcher is available to the respondent.


1. In case of bad weather, poor terrained etc, transport and communication are a problem on the part of the interviewer.
2. In accessibility caused by the mobility of the potential respondents at the time they are needed.
3. It is a very expensive method in terms of training, paying and accommodating the interviewers.
4. Accommodation may not be available
5. Some societies show hostility to strangers
6. In case of political problems like insurgency
7. Suspension from respondents for confidentiality and anonymity.
8. Illiteracy levels of some people.
9. A problem of language barrier between the respondent and the interviewer.
10. Distortions and at times filling of the questionnaires by the Interviewer (In case of tiredness, bad weather etc)
11. Interviews’ opinion may influence the kind of answer received.


When the interviewer records anything that differs from the real happening, then there is a response error. Response error therefore is the difference between the true values of the respondent and the values recorded by the interviewer when interviewing. Each and every question has the right response; in case a wrong response is given by the respondent, or recorded by the interviewer, then there is a response error. Therefore, response errors can either be due to the respondent or the interviewer.

The Respondent as a source of Response error:

i) Lack of knowledge: The respondent may avoid showing ignorance concerning a particular issue and gives a wrong answer.
ii) Memory failure - The respondent may have forgotten the right answer
iii) Misunderstanding the question - The respondent may misunderstand the question and give an answer which is wrong
iv) Deliberate lying - The respondent may understand the question and has the collect answer but decides to tell a lie.

This could be due to:

a) The question content: e.g. questions involving social gain, personal circumstances etc
b) The presence of a “Third Party” which may jeopardise the conversation
c) The place of the interview e.g. office, along the road etc.
d) Time of the interview - ie busy hours, after work when one is tired etc
e) The sponsorship of the inquiry ie personal, government, institution etc.

The interviewer as a source of response error:

The response given by the respondent may be right, but the interviewer either because of mishearing, carelessness or deliberately records what defers from the right answer.

This could be due to:

a) Interviewer Opinion: The opinion of the interviewer may be evident which may influence the respondents to give particular responses.
b) Personal characteristics: This is what the Interviewer is in relation to the respondent. It includes age, sex, level of education etc. In case of sensitive questions a lady of 16 years interviewing an old man of 40 years may create errors in response.
c) Interviewer expectations: The interviewer may expect a particular answer from the respondent which he may not get leading to recording the expected (wrong) answer e.g. age, level of income etc.

i) Probing in which meaning is distorted
ii) Asking ambiguous, vague or leading questions
iii) Careless recording of the responses
iv) Wrong translation of the responses
v) Deliberate cheating or conscious distortions
vi) Asking long questions, which the respondent may forget some parts
vii) Distorting the order of questions.


a) Controlling the interview
b) Careful coding
c) Good selection, training and supervision of the interviewers
d) Recording verbatim
e) Use of tape recorders
f) Matching interviewers with respondents in terms of age, sex, social status etc.
g) Motivation of respondents from start to end
h) Building a warm rapport and confidence in the respondent
i) Concealing of opinions, on the side of the interviewer
j) Appropriate questionnaire design i.e. question order, precision, content etc.


In this method of data collection, the respondent gets and fills in a formerly well structured questionnaire. The respondent must be literate, i.e. knowing how to read and write.
There are basically two types: -

i) Mail Questionnaire
ii) Home/office

I) The Mail Questionnaire: The questionnaires are sent to the postal address and the respondent fills and sends them back to the researcher. This necessitates sending a stamped self-addressed envelope in order not to burden the respondent. It is popular and most frequent method used in developed countries.

Advantages of using mail Questionnaire:

i) costs a stamp and an envelope and therefore very cheap.
ii) Reaches isolated and remote areas.
iii) Eliminates the possibility of non-contact i.e. not finding the respondent
iv) Gives the respondent enough time to reflect, concentrate and at times consult
v) Can be used to screen for subsequent researches
vi) Eliminates response errors due to the interviewer
vii) Ensures anonymity and confidentiality

Its Limitations

i) It works only with the literates
ii) Works only with topics and questionnaires which are clear and easy to understand
iii) There is no probing
iv) It is not flexible
v) Works only when there are postal services.


- The questionnaires are either sent or personally delivered to and later picked from the premises of the respondent. The respondent is given time to fill in the questionnaires. This is commonly used when:

i) The postal system is not efficient
ii) There is need for more explanations and clarification
iii) It minimises non-response
iv) It saves time.
Some of its disadvantages are:

i) It is expensive
ii) It is tiring
iii) There may be non-contact


In an investigation, one may decide to do research on the entire population or part of the population. The method of selecting that part of the entire population for purposes of research is known as sampling.

3.1 Some Concepts:

a) Sample: This is the part of the entire population that is selected for study purposes. It can also be described as a subset of measurements selected from the population of interest (Mendenhall). A sample from a population is any subset of that population (Madsen W. R).
b) Population: This refers to a complete set of elements having some common characteristics. It is a set representing all measurements of interest to the sample collector (Mendenhall). A population is a collection of objects having a well defined set of characteristics (Madsen W. R.)
c) Element: This is an individual from whom information is collected.
d) Sampling frame: This is a list from which a sample is drawn i.e. a list of blocks in a town etc.
e) Attribute: This is a characteristic that describes an element i.e. rich or poor, illiterate or literate etc
f) Parameter: This is a summary description of a given variable in a population. Any numerical value describing a characteristic of a population is called a parameter. (Walpole R.E.)
g) Statistic: This is a summary description of a given variable in a sample. Any numerical value describing a characteristic of a sample is called a stististic. (Walpole R.E.)

h) Sampling Error: The difference between the parameter and Statistic,
i.e. the difference between the description of a given variable in a population and in a sample from that population.


1. Defining the study population: This shows exactly what the population is in terms of parameters.
2. Specifying the sampling frame: In this, a list of all the elements (or group of elements in form of blocks, maps etc) from which the sample is to be got is made.

3. Identifying (specifying) the sampling unit/unit of analysis: This is the smallest unit to be used in analysis i.e. household, person, school etc.
4. Identifying the method of sampling: This is the method that is most suitable and chosen in that study for sampling. It could be a Random or Non-Random method of sampling.
5. Specifying the size of the sample: The Sample size should be proportional to the population size.
6. Designing a sampling plan: Steps to be taken at each stage of sampling are described in the plan.
7. Sample Selection: this is the act of selecting the sample from the population.


It is necessary because it is:
a) Cheaper: it saves time and money.
b) Higher level of accuracy. It permits a higher level of accuracy because of better manpower, and more care taken in analysis.
c) Quick results: There are some problems, which require immediate solutions, e.g. an epidemic. In such cases, a sample can be used.
d) In case of tests which affect the sampled elements e.g. the melting temperature of a fuse, the effectiveness of a new drug etc
e) Higher level of adaptability in samples compared to censuses.
f) Populations require much management as compared to samples.


This is the difference between the true values of the population and the estimated values of the sample. In other words, the difference between the parameter and the statistic.

If there is a population of 100 people whose mean income is Shs. 48,000; and a Random Sample of 10 people is chosen whose mean income is Shs. 51,000.

Y = Shs . 48,000
y = Shs. 51,000
s.e =Y-y
= Shs. 51,000 – 48,000
Shs. 3,000

The smaller the sampling error The more accurate and exact are the sample estimates. In the given illustration, if another sample is selected and its mean income is Shs. 50,000=; the sampling error will be Shs. 2,000= which will be smaller than the previous one; and the sample estimates will be closer to the true population values and the better for the researcher.

Sampling error is a function of two factors; i.e. the structure of the population and sample size.

a) Population structure: The population can either be homogeneous or heterogeneous in behaviour. The more heterogeneous the population, the bigger the sampling error and the more homogeneous the population, the less the sampling error.

NOTE: If the population is completely homogeneous, there is no sampling error and if it is completely heterogeneous, there is no possibility of sampling.

b) The size of the sample selected: For heterogeneous populations, the bigger the sample, the smaller the sampling error. This is so because as the sample becomes bigger, it tends to a population.

These are the errors outside sampling. They are due to improper selection of the sample, faulty methods of collecting and analysing data etc.

These are basically two broad techniques/methods in sampling:-
i) Probability (Random) sampling
ii) Non-probability (non-random) sampling
A technique is under probability sampling if each element in the population has a chance of being selected into the sample; otherwise it is non-random sampling.

1. Simple Random Sampling: this is the easiest and simplest of all. Each and every element in the study population has an equal chance of being selected into the sample. A simple Random Sample of n objects chosen from a population is on chosen in such a way that all samples of size n are equally likely to be chosen (Madsen W.R). This is applicable when:

a) The population is relatively homogeneous
b) The study population is small such that the sampling frame can easily be specified.

It can be by use of Lottery Method or by Random Numbers:

In this method, discs/folded papers written on the names or numbers of the elements to be selected, put in a bowl, mixed by shaking and picked at random. This can be done with replacement in which the picked disc is dropped back and the same process continues until the whole sample is selected. This implies that one element can be selected more than once. In this case, the probability of choosing an element remains constant i.e. p= 1/N;
Where N= population Number.
P= probability of choosing an element
It can also be with replacement in which the selected disc is not replaced. The process of shaking and selecting another disc continues without the previously selected disc until the whole sample is selected. The probability of choosing each element there varies.

I.e. p=1/N, 1/N-1, 1/N-2 -------- 1/N- (n-1)
Where P- probability of choosing an element
N- Population Number
n- Sample Number

This uses a table of Random Numbers- The elements are numbered from 1 – N. The table does not follow any pattern and the sample is selected in any convenient way i.e. horizontally vertically, diagonally etc.
109 210 111 413 517 567

316 718 617 273 161 174

100 910 818 512 414 876

327 254 154 146 271 186

511 423 616 641 172 275

156 578 963 985 243 432

694 904 806 372 571 576

_ _ _ _ - -

If a sample of 20 elements is to be selected from the above table, the first 5 elements could be:
i) Horizontally – from the left top corner:
109, 210, 111, 413, 517, 567
ii) Vertically – from the fifth column:
517, 161, 414, 271, 172, 243, 571

2. Systematic Sampling:
This is always done from a population which is relatively small and homogeneous. A certain order of selecting elements is followed. In this technique, a sampling fraction (k) is selected first. This divides population into the number of samples possible ie k=N/n. where k = the sampling fraction
N = Population Number
n = Sample Number

The first selection is done using simple Random Sampling from the first k elements. If W is the first element selected; the W, W+R, W+2R, W+3R, -------- is the sample. This is done by selecting every element after the previous one until the whole sample is selected.
e.g. if the population size is 900; and the sample size is 30.
i.e N=900, n=30, then
R=N/n = 900/30 = 30.
By simple Random sampling, if W=15, then the whole sample selected will be W, W+R, W+2R, W+3R, -------
= 14, 45, 75, 105, 135, 165, 195, --------

3. Stratified Sampling:
In this method, the population is first divided into groups called strata. It works best in populations, which are:
i) Large; therefore without a specified sampling frame.
ii) Heterogeneous in nature

Each stratum should be as homogeneous as possible and as different from any other as possible. If for example the study is on “The Availability of textbooks in the Library.” The Researcher should stratify according to the Departments.
I.e. Business Studies
Education Studies
Social Work Studies
community leadership and Developmentetc.
After stratifying the population, a sub-sample is selected from each stratum by simple Random sampling or systematic sampling. These sub-samples can be selected proportionately or disproportionately.

An example of a proportionate stratified sample:
Uganda Christian University - 1800 students
Law Studies - 300 “
Social Science Studies - 500 “
Business Studies - 400 “
Mass Communication Studies - 100 “
Education Studies - 500 “

If a sample of 180 students is needed from the total population, the sampling fraction is
S=n/N = 180/1800 = 1/10.
Law Studies - 1/10x300 = 30
Social Studies - 1/10x500 = 50
Business Studies - 1/10 x 400 = 40
Mass Communication – 1/10x 100 = 10
Education - 1/10 x 500 = 50
Sample Number 180

n is the sample size
N is the population size
S is the sampling fraction

The sub-sample is got by multiplying the sampling fraction s by the stratum size (xi).
i.e. Education Department
S x Xi = 1/10 x 500 = 50.
For a disproportionate stratified sample, the sub samples are not proportional to the Stratum
Advantages of using stratified sampling:
i) It is sometimes the most representative way of sampling i.e. it ensures representativeness of the sample. This is so because it helps to capture the view of the minority.
ii) Heterogeneous populations with their varied behaviour and opinions bring in sampling error, which is always reduced by stratification.
iii) It makes the administration of the whole exercise easier.
iv) Different methods of data collect, if appropriate can be applied
v) Different sampling frames can be used to select the sample.

This is most common in populations, which are completely heterogeneous. The population is divided into groups, which are themselves heterogeneous. A sample of some of the groups (Clusters) is got and all the elements in the clusters sampled are taken for the study. A part from this single stage cluster sampling, a multi-stage cluster sampling can be done where sub-clusters are sampled from the sampled clusters.

This method is most applicable in large populations, without a specific sampling frame and completely homogeneous.

Reasons for using cluster sampling:
i) -It is cheap; this is because it saves on time and money.
ii) Selection of sample very simple
iii) It facilitates supervision
iv) If there is no sampling frame

Differences between stratified sampling and cluster sampling:

i) The sample selected from all the strata, but a sample of clusters is selected.
ii) The final sample is selected using simple random sampling from each stratum but all elements in the sampled clusters are considered.
iii) The size of the sample is known and fixed in stratified sampling, but is unknown and varies in cluster sampling.
iv) To minimise the sampling error, each stratum should be as homogeneous as possible and each cluster as heterogeneous as possible.

4. Area Sampling:
In this method of sampling, areas are marked; sampled and the elements within the areas are also sampled to make the final sample. Maps are commonly used and if not available physical features, such as road, rivers etc are used. These are very commonly used in less developed countries.


There are several methods under Non-probability sampling but most of them are used for quick results, and always by administrators and other persons of some authority.

1. Convenience Sampling: This normally selects those elements that are easiest to find i.e. those you know by name, those on the front bench, those you come close to in a gathering etc.

2. Purposive sampling: The Researcher uses his own judgement about which respondents to choose. He picks only those elements that best meet the purposed for the study. The Researcher uses his skills and prior knowledge to choose the respondents.
3. Network sampling: This works best with very sensitive issues i.e. drug abuse and traffic; sex selling etc. One element is identified; confidence is built in that respondent who is later given a task of identifying another. One identified later identifies another until the sample is complete.

4. Others include:
i) Quota Sampling
ii) Dimensional sampling etc.



This is commonly called questionnaire construction. It involves the framing of questions in a format and wording which will be taken to the respondent. In order to create a favourable atmosphere (rapport) between the respondent and the researcher, designing a questionnaire requires beginning with simple and clear questions, to move sensitive and complex questions.

Set of Principles for Proper questionnaire Design:

1. Precision: The questions set must be short and precise but sufficient. They should be set in such a way that they are answered easily and quickly. Long questions would confuse the respondent who may probably forget the first part of the question before the last word is read.

2. Questionnaire Relevance: The questionnaire should not only be relevant to the objectives and variables of the study but also to the respondent. This can be achieved by a multiple of questionnaires or multiple wording which can be assisted by word like “if No skip To” according to the categories available.

3. Question Order: Questions should be set in an orderly manner to fit together and form a conversation. There should be a logical progression for the respondent to be drawn into the study by raising his interest. This call for beginning with simple and clear questions to sensitive and complex questions; from more general to more specific questions. Begin with filter questions, which are followed by contingency questions.

1- Are you in School?
a) Yes b) No “If No, jump to on 4”
2- In which level are you?
3- Who pays your School fees?
a) Parent b) Government c) other
4- How do you always spend your day?

4. Question content – This is concerned with the wording of the questions. The questions should never offend the respondent. They should be phrased in a simple and straight forward manner and should avoid phrases (words) which have several meanings. Generally avoid
a) Ambiguous questions i.e. questions with several meanings e.g. where do you come from?
b) Double-barrelled questions i.e. two or more questions in one e.g. Do you wake up early on Sunday and go to Church?
c) Leading questions e.g. You attend Church Services, don’t you.
d) Presumed questions e.g. How often do you attend church services? before you find out whether the respondent attends the services at all.
e) Abstract questions e.g. Are you happy with your Church services?

5. Close ended and open ended questions - it is normal practice to begin with close ended questions e.g. questions which require answers like
a) YES B) NO
a) Married b) unmarried c) Widowed/separated

Open-ended questions are at times opinion questions, which bring out salient information. The researcher is at liberty to even use only close-ended questions or open ended questions.

Advantages of close ended questions:
- Responses are standard and can be easily compared.
- They are easy to analyse
- The respondent becomes clear of what the researcher wants
- Answers are relatively more complete.

Disadvantages of close ended questions:
- it is easy for the respondent to guess the answer
- If one’s category is not available, it frustrates the respondent

Advantages of open ended questions:
- Can be used when all answer categories are not known
- It allows the respondent to answer adequately

Disadvantages of open ended questions:
- They lead to countless responses which are hard to code
- Some of the responses may be irrelevant
- They often require superior interviewing skills
- They are often too general to explore specific aspects

Non-survey Research is:
i) not based on probability sampling techniques
ii) findings cannot be generalised
iii) Data tends to be qualitative in nature

Non-survey Research Include:
• Key Informant interviews
• Focus Group discussions etc.

Just like the case of survey research, Non-Survey research is based on the Research problem, the objectives and the Research Questions. The research instrument is therefore essentially trying to get the information about the issues determined earlier (The principles used in designing survey instruments also apply to non-survey instruments though to a less extent).

Other guidelines include:

1. They are generally less structured. Questions are not pre-coded and are therefore open ended.
2. They tend to have more elaborated instructions i.e. they introduce and explain the purpose of the study more than in the survey method.
3. They identify the parameters for data collection. And in this case, four should be considered:
• The setting (place, environment)
• The participants/Actors
• The events/phenomena
• The process (i.e. order)
4. The nature of questions: These are simply guidelines to the interviewer about the kind of issues to be covered. They tend to be flexible and the interviewer is under no obligation to ask every question. Each key question is followed by probes, which assist the researcher to make in-depth investigations.

5. Recording: In this case, unlike in survey research, the answers are made separate sheet from the research instrument. The following should be taken care of;
i) The Descriptive notes - The physical state which the respondent is in.
ii) The reflective notes - These are personal thoughts.
iii) Information about time, date, and the number of participants in the interview.

5. The structure of the instrument:

i) The Heading
ii) Instructions to the interviewer
iii) Introductions
iv) Key questions to be covered
v) The probes to follow the key questions
vi) Space for recording interviewer’s comments
vii) The space in which the interviewer records the reflective notes.


5.1 Data Processing
This involves three stages:-
i) Editing
ii) Coding
iii) Tabulation and analysis of data

When data is collected in a raw form, it is compressed by putting it into tables, calculated values or graphs. This is what is known as Data Processing. When the processed data is used to interpret the findings, the process is known as Data Analysis.

This is the checking of the filled questionnaires to ensure consistency, completeness, and accuracy. It could be done in the field or back at home but at least within the same day of data collection. The Researcher checks that all the relevant questions have to be asked and the corresponding answers recorded. All questions must be answered and the spaces provided filled in. Otherwise it should be indicated that not applicable. The researcher therefore goes through the filled instrument to fill up the gaps, correct the errors as one recalls all the responses and the reactions of the respondent during the interview.

This is a process of giving a category to every answer so as to bring out their essential patterns.
This has two parts:
a) Coding the frame: This comprised of all possible answer categories in which the data to be collected may be classified. For example, at Uganda Christian University, 2001, the Departments can be categorised as Law, Social Sciences, Business studies, Education and Theology. The answers are categorised into mutually exclusive1, exhaustive2 and representative categories. Each category of answers is referred to as a Code. All the codes of the whole questionnaire are what is referred to as a coding frame.

Foot Note
1. Mutually exclusive implies that no answer fits in more than one category.
2. Exhaustive answer category implies that all the possible categories are provided for in the coding frame.

b) Coding Answers: This is normally done by the interviewer by ticking the answer relevant to the question. This is normally done for close-ended questions. Even for open ended questions, after all answers have been collected, they have to be coded.

III. TABULATION: This is the last stage of data processing, which is always done after editing and coding. The data is put in tables according to their codes and frequencies. This is when the data is quantitative in nature, which requires statistical analysis.

There are two major forms of tables:
a) Univariate Tables which involve the frequencies of one variable e.g.
Number of students per subject
R.Methods 400
Economics 500
History 60
Geography 40
Total: 1000
16-20 200
21-25 600
26-30 200
Total: 1000

Law 300
Education 400
Social Sciences 300
Total: 1000
b) The Bivariate Tables:
They involve the frequencies of more than one variable e.g. course by Age.

The final stage is analysis which involves the interpretation of the research findings. If the data is qualitative i.e. incase of focus group findings; analysis is done directly from the quotations given by the respondents and therefore no need for tabulations.


This is the process of determining the value or level of a particular unit of analysis.
Importance of Measurement:

a) It is the only way through which variables are especially defined; implying that a precise description of a variable can be reached at only through measurement.
b) It enables a researcher to clarify his theoretical thinking and to suggest new variables.

c) A good theory can be greatly enhanced through measurement, such that if measurement is done correctly, it can improve the qualities of research i.e. increasing reliability and validity of research.

d) It is a requirement in everyday life e.g. measurement of distance, weight etc.

Functions of Measurement:
a) To describe phenomena empirically
b) It makes statistical manipulation and treatment of data possible.
c) It helps in testing of theories and hypothesis.
d) It enables a researcher differentiate between the objects of study according to the level of properties they posses.

There are basically four levels of measurement.
1. Nominal measurement: This is the simplest and lowest form of measurement, also known as the classification measurement because it involves classfying concepts. In this level of measurement, numbers or lebels are assigned to identify objects according to their characteristics. This is a qualitative measurement which classifies elements according to similar characteristics e.g. Car Numbers.
House Numbers etc
It is therefore for identification purposes.
It must have:
i) At least two categories
ii) The categories must be mutually exclusive
iii) The categories must be exhaustive.

2. Ordinal Measurement: This implies following order:
i.e. the ranking of objects according to their characteristics. This could be either in the ascending or descending order. In addition to having all the characteristics of norminal scale, it shows orderliness i.e. it clearly shows pisitions of the objects - Second, third etc.

3. Interval Measurement: In addition to all the characteristics of ordinal measurement, it gives the differences in values e.g. The First student had 10 marks higher than the second.
Position 1st 2nd 3rd 4th
Total Marks 340 330 300 287
Differences - 10 30 17

In this form of measurement, O is arbitrary e.g. ooC= 320F.
4. Ratio Measurement: In addition to all the characteristics of interval scale, it has an absolute zero ie a point of beginning. Observations can be compared meaningfully through ratio measurement e.g.weight 1Kg (A) 10 Kg (B)

Such that B is ten times heavier than A.

6.1 Evaluation Of Research

Evaluation allows the researcher to decide for himself what conclusions to draw from evidence/data found.

Questions to think about in evaluation:
i) Does the data agree or support the researchers’ conclusions in respect to the population studied?
ii) If the conclusions are sound, do they make a generalisation beyond the sampled population and the setting in which the research was made?

If the date support the conclusions made in the specific instance studied, then there is internal validity. At times, a careful look at the conclusions made by the researcher from the evidence can sometimes reveal errors of reasoning that undermine the conclusions that seem to follow from the study. Suppose one concludes that poverty is the major cause of child abuse”, would the data be in agreement with the conclusion?

The second consideration is whether the conclusion can be generalised to the population, other settings inclusive. This involves external validity and it is meaningful if the internal validity is already established. Therefore a study has external validity if its results can be generalised to other situations in which the same variables operate. Suppose it was true that “poverty is the major cause of child abuse” in Mukono District

Is it true in all other places?
Is it true always?

Chapter Six

7. The Use Of Secondary Data:

This is the use of the already collected data that was not specifically gathered for the research question at hand. This data could be government or non-government/private statistical studies already undertaken or unpublished observations of a knowledge observer.

7.1 Advantages of using Secondary Data:
1. Cheap, using already collected data requires less time and money. Therefore the whole research is cheap in terms of time and money spent.
2. Quick Results: If the researching body needs quick results, its better to use already collected data than going to the field for primary data.

3. It acts as a starting point for additional research from recommendations, policies etc.

4. It provides the means for increasing the efficiency of the research costs by targeting real gaps and oversights in knowledge.

5. The existing data and the new data can be compared for purposes of examining differences on trends, and therefore secondary data acts as a comparative tool in research.

6. It provides a basis for determining whether or not new information is representative of a population as in the case of sampling e.g. comparison of demographic characteristics of a sample to those of a large population may reveal how representative the sample is of the large population.

7.2 Disadvantages of using secondary data:
1. There is a possibility of using outdated data therefore not timely for the research purpose.
2. The unit of aggregation may not be appropriate for a particular purpose.
3. Categories and measurements used in the data may not be appropriate for the research purpose at hand.

7.3 How To Evaluate Secondary Data

Secondary Data needs to be evaluated since it is not necessarily reliable and valid. Data is always evaluated according to how recent and credible it is.
Data can be evaluated basing on the following questions:

a) What was the purpose of the study? The objectives of the study always determine the sampling and data collection methods, the degree of precision and the types of categories used. This may limit the usefulness of the data for some other particular purpose.

b) Who had the responsibility of collecting the data: The qualifications technical competence, resources available and potential biases determine the quality of the data collected.

c) The Research Design i.e. what methodology was used in obtaining the data? There is need of getting information about:

i) Size and nature of sample
ii) Response rates and missing data
iii) Experimental procedures
iv) Validation efforts
v) Questionnaires and coding forms
vi) Interview guides
vii) Methods of analysis

This allows for a proper critique of the data collection procedure. Knowing the sample design is very helpful since it deals with the question of generalisation and representativeness of the results.

d) When was data collection done? Is the data still current or has been overtaken by some events and is obsolete? Society is dynamic, like what used to be a taboo in the 20th Century, may be acceptable today: What used to be a living wage by 1999, may be a “pea-nut” by 2001.

e) What type of data was actually collected? How were units and concepts defined? How direct were measures used? How complete was the information? Apparent inconsistencies across studies often have more to do with the operational definition of terms than actual differences in the underlying phenomena.

f) In comparison to other sources, how consistent is the information obtained? In case of differences and disagreements between different sources, there is need of identifying the reasons why such differences exist and then determine which source is more credible.

Chapter Seven

7.0 Dissertation Writing


This is not an easy task as some would want to think. It tests ones ability to manage a research project, and write it up in a clear and orderly fashion. A high level of originality and initiative are expected.

7.1 Stages Of Social Research

1. Formulation of a Research Problem
2. Formulation of a Research Design (overall approach to data collections)
3. Method of data Collection (Personal Interviews, mail questionnaire)
4. Formulation/Design of Research Instruments
5. Deciding on the sample size
6. Data Collection
7. Analysis and Interpretation of Data Collected
8. Preparation and presentation of Research Report

1.0 Formulation of a Research Problem: This constitutes writing a Research Topic. Specific situations lead to the formulation of a particular problem. These include: The Paradigm, values of the Researcher, Methodology and the time factor.

a) Paradigm: This is the perspective or frame of reference with which the Researcher views the Social World - “Child Abuse in Mukono”

b) Values: What one desires influences the selection of a particular topic – “Women emancipation”.
c) Methodology: Is the method of research qualitative or quantitative or both. The method you choose, will influence how you approach the topic you have chosen, ie it influences on the sampling method, the data collection method, the method of analysis etc
d) Time Factor: Is it for a long or short time period? The time schedule in which each part of the research work is to be completed is very important. The following should be included in your time planning: -When to have your proposal approved
-When to have done the pre tests
-When to have trained the research assistants
-When to have collected the data
-When to have finished data editing
-When to have completed the analysis
-When to have completed the research work ready for dissemination.

Be realistic about the time allocated to each item; one would rather finish an exercise much before than being caught by time. In case of need, make some readjustments as you go along.

After a topic has been selected, there is a need for evaluation. The problem area selected has to be of significant importance to the research world.

What to consider when evaluating a Research Problem:

a) The research on that problem is expected to give a solution, which has a significant contribution to the body of organisation knowledge.
b) It should be able to fill some gaps in the present knowledge, solve some inconsistencies in previous research and make a general improvement in earlier studies.
c) The solution to the problem should open up new problems for further research. A good study while arriving at a solution leads to other problems that need investigation.
d) The problem must be one that can be empirically studied i.e. its hypothesis can be proved right or wrong.
e) It must be sustainable for the investigator in terms of:
i) genuine interest and enthusiasm
ii) having knowledge and some experience
iii) being feasible to the investigator i.e. availability of funds, and ability to complete in the available time.
iv) Being investigated and completed in the available time.

1.1 Developing a problem statement (statement of the problem).
It is advisable to begin with a broader problem area and narrow it down to a specific research problem. A properly defined research problem should (i) be stated in the simplest form
ii) Identify the variables being investigated
iii) Indicate the relationship between the variables being investigated
iv) Identify the target population

1.2 Feasibility of a Research Project:
- Some students select the topics which have already been studied, while others select very new topics. The better alternative is the in between the two extremes. This is because there is no rationale of researching on what has been researched on and it becomes very difficult for a student who chooses on very new topics: for it may even be impossible to identify the relevant literature.

8.2 RESEARCH DESIGN: This is the general outline of the procedures involved in conducting a research. It is a set of operating guidelines within which research is carried out, consistent with the scientific methods available. It can be in form of a census where a complete enumeration of the whole population is done at a point in time. It can also be in form of a case study where relatively few persons, (even one person) are studied in detail. It can also take the form of surveys, which we are more concerned with where samples using sampling techniques are selected to represent the whole population.

The design involves the literature review, the sampling techniques (methods); data collection methods, the identification of the Independent, dependent and the intermediate variables; formulation of the hypothesis, the methods of data analysis and the research report writing.

d) Variables: These are the independent, dependent and the intermediate variables. These are used in formulating hypotheses where it can clearly be shown that the independent variable determines the dependent. In tabulation, the independent is always placed on top while dependent on the left hand i.e. When drawing graphs, the Independent is always placed on the horizontal axis, while the dependent is on the vertical axis.

For a variable to be independent, dependent or intermediate, it dependents on the context of the research. It is advisable to explain why one considers a variable to be whither independent, dependent or intermediate.

The Independent variable is always the “cause” of the event while the dependent is the result or “Effect”.

“Causes of high infant mortality rates in Uganda”
-Malnutrition, disease & wars could be some of the causes and therefore the independent variable.
-“Poverty levels” could be one of the intermediate variables.

Note: Social Sciences, the demographic and social economic factors are always the Independent variables so long as they explain the results of the study. They include sex, tribe, religion, level of income level of education, marital status etc.

e) Hypotheses: A hypothesis is a predicted relationship between the Independent and the dependent variables, which can be empirically tested with significant tests.
e.g. The better the Income, the higher the standard of living.

Income level is the “cause” and the Independent variable while the standard of living is the “effect” and the dependent variable.

8.3 Formulation Of Research Instruments: These are the guidelines used by the researcher to collect information from the sampled population. They could be formal or informal. The commonly used are the formal interview schedules called the questionnaire:

There are five principles, which must be considered for proper researcher instrument formulation.

a) The Question order: The questions should be set in an orderly manner to fit together and form a conversation. Begin with simple clear questions to more sensitive and complex questions. This helps to remove tension and build rapport with the respondent.

b) Questionnaire relevance: The questions should be relevant to the study and to the respondent. Make sure that no respondent. Make sure that no respondent is asked a question that does not apply to him/her. This necessitates the application of more than one questionnaire or the use of contingency questions with instructions like “If NO SKIP TO”.
c) Precision: The questionnaire should be limited in length and scope. The questions should be short, easy to answer but sufficient
d) Question Content: The wording of the questions must never offend the respondent. Avoid phrases or words, which have more than one meaning and the questions, must be phrased in a simple straight forward manner.
i) Avoid two barrelled questions i.e. two questions in one e.g. Do you wake up early and attend the chapel services?
ii) Avoid abstract questions: Are you happy with this University.
iii) Avoid leading questions: You don’t smoke, do you?
iv) Avoid vague/ambiguous questions: Where do you come from? This could be residence, place of birth or nationality.
v) Avoid presumed questions: How often do you go to Church? Before you find out whether he does.
e) Open and close ended questions: The researcher should know how he wants to categorise his responses and therefore the need for using either open or close ended questions.

8.4 Writing A Research Proposal: Like any work or construction, planning is a necessity. As you plan, it is possible to find out that the study is not possible e.g. in terms of cost, time etc. In is therefore better to alter things at the planning stage than when you are in the middle of your study. Luke 14:28.

A proposal is a detailed description of the proposed study designed to investigate a given problem. It is a master plan for your study and is critically important because it will communicate your preliminary ideas on what you are trying to do, when you plan to do it, how you plan to do it and how you plan to analyse your data. It brings about careful thinking about many aspects of the proposed study. In the process, one may discover matters he otherwise would have ignored. Evaluation of the proposed study becomes easy and certain weakness may be discovered and improvement made at the very beginning. It is generally a guide for conducting the study in terms of orderliness, time schedules etc. It ensures that the study addresses the problem that has been framed, otherwise the target may be missed.

Components of a Research Proposal:
i)Title page; With the Researcher’s name
ii) Table of contents

- Background to the study
- Statement of the problem
- Justification/significance of the study
- Objectives
- Hypotheses
iv) Review of relevant literature

v) Methodology
- Subject
- Data Collection instrument
- Design
- Procedure
vi)Time Schedule
vii)The Budget

i) The Title Page: This give the Topic of study, the name of the researcher and who the researcher is.
ii) Table of contents: This outlines what is contained in the proposal and on which page it is located.
a) Background: In the background, all information required for an understanding of the problem is given. This includes what is already known and written on the subject of study. It helps the researcher to identify the gaps in what is already known and to identify what is not yet known on the subject of study. It is a stepping stone in framing the problem statement.
b) Statement of the problem: This must be stated as clearly as possible since the rest of the proposal depends on the problem statement. It should be guided by a series of questions or statements that will be answered by the proposed research.
c) Justification of the study: It must be justified by discussing its significance e.g.
- It could be filling the gaps in knowledge
- it could be useful for planning etc.
d) Objectives – The overall objective that you want to achieve must be stated; then state specific objectives if necessary.
e) Hypothesis: Each hypothesis should clearly state the expected relationship between the variables in the study.

iv) Literature review: This is the reading and writing on what has been written down on the subject under study. It should be more detailed, coherent and consistent to bring out the real situation. As the background to the study, it helps the researcher to clearly identify the gaps in what is known, identify what is unknown and in framing the hypotheses. Use as many different types of sources as possible. These may include journals, the internet, textbooks, government publications – that is; all that you deem relevant and of use. Whenever you read something or take notes on a source, always take down full bibliographic details to avoid time wasting and loss of some when you are compiling references and full bibliography.

v) Methodology: This helps to identify and work on the following so that a proper research procedure is followed.
a) Subjects: These are the potential respondents. Description of the subjects clearly defines the population from which the sample is selected. Description indicates the size and the major characteristics of the population. Such should be answered when describing the subjects:
- Where are my subjects to come from?
- What are they like?
- Are they scattered or close to one another?
- Are they homogeneous or heterogeneous?
b) Design - This described the basic structure of the study e.g. census, sample survey or case study. It goes further to explain whether the research will be qualitative or quantitative or both. It also explains the sampling methods, data collection methods, method of data processing and analysis and presentation of results.

All this is determined by a number of factors among which is the population structure, urgency of need of results, availability of funds etc.
c) Data gathering Instrument: This involves the designing of the questionnaire. Its validity and reliability must be tested before using it in the actual study. The instrument designed may be structured or not structured. This among others may be determined by whether the approach is qualitative or quantitative.
d) Procedure: This describes all the steps that will be followed in conducting the study, in the order in which they will occur.
e) Data analysis: Here you specify the method to be applied in analysing the data.
f) Anticipated problems during research. These problems could either be technical, physical, social or financial. If possible explain how you plan to overcome them.
vi)Time Schedule for the different stages of the study mean that the researcher keeps to the deadlines set for the particular research project.

vii)Budget: It could be in such a form:
Subsistence -30,000/=
Travel -20,000/=
Accommodation -40,000/=
Stationary -100,000/=
Typing and Secretarial work - 40,000/=
Research Assistants - 100,000/=
Total: 330,000/=

viii) Bibliography

1) Bailey K. D. (1982). Methods of Social Research 2nd Edition. The Free Press, New York.
2) Moser C.A. and Kalton G. (1971) Survey Methods in Social Investigation. Heinemann, London.
3) Selltiz c. et el (1978). Research Methods in Social Relations, 3rd Edition.
4) Margaret Riel . Social Science Research Methods (A handbook of Africa and Revised Edition).
5) Stuart Melville and Wayne Goddard. Research Methodology; An Introduction for Science and Engineering Students.
6) Tereza kakooza. An Introduction to Research Methodology.
7) Uganda Christian University (2004) – Guidelines for Dissertation writing
8) Jack R. frankel and Norman E. Wallen. How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education, Third Edition.
9) Mark L. Berenson and David m. Levine. Basic Business Statistics: Concepts and Applications.
10) Hannah W. Kinoti. A handbook of Social Research Methods.

11) Richard W. Madsen/Melvin L. Moeschberger. Introductory Statistics for Business and Economics.

12) Ronalr E. Walpole. Introduction to Statistics,3rd Edition.

13) Mendenhall. Introduction to probability and Statistics.

13) Martin E. Amin. Social Science Research; Conception, Methodology and Analysis